BRIEF HISTORY OF THE DISTRICT
The district derived its name from Medak, the then headquarters town of taluk of the same name. Medak was originally known as Methukudurgam which subsequently changed into Methuku due to the growth of fine and coarse rice in this area. Medak district became part of the Kakatiya Kingdom to the Bahmani Kingdom and later the Golconda Kingdom. Finally, on the fall of the Qutubshahi dynasty, it was annexed to the Mughal Empire. During the formation of Hyderabad State by Asif Jahi, this district was detached and included in the Nizam’s Dominions. It finally became a part of Andhra Pradesh with effect from 1st November 1956 under the scheme of Re-organisation of States.
The early history of Medak district is not very clear. Its political history, however, commences with the advent of the Mouryas who extended their sway to the south during the reign of Asoka.
After the Mouryas, the Satavahanas gained prominence over the Deccan of which, Medak district formed a part. Several coins of the Satavahana rulers like Goutamiputra Satakarni, Vasishtiputra Pulumavi, Siv Sri, Yagna Sri Satakarni, etc., were unearthed during excavations at Kondapur village of Medak district. These archeological discoveries indicate the existence of a buried city of vast dimensions with a number of Chaityas, Viharas, Stupas and Monasteries.
After the Satavahanas, the district passed under the sway of the Mahisha dynasty. Though as many as eighteen rulers ruled this district for a period of 383 years, only two rulers Mana and Yasa proved to be powerful. Mana broke the domination of the Satavahanas, assumed the title of ‘Rajan’ and reigned the kingdom to its splendor. He enjoyed the privilege of striking his own coins. One of his lead coins exhibited the characteristics of the coins belonging to the close of 2nd or beginning of the 3rd century. The rule of this dynasty came to an end with the rise of Chalukyas of Badami, who later on lost to the Rashtrakutas. After the Rashtrakutas, Medak District passed into the hands of Western Chalukyas of Kalyani dynasty, whose rule lasted from 973 to 1200 A.D. Famous rulers like Ahavamalla Taila-II, Somesvara-I, Somesvara-II, Vikramaditya-VI and Trailokyamalla Taila-III belonged to this dynasty. The inscription of Koraprolu pertaining to the rule of Taila-II, throws light on his feudatory. Mahamandaleswara Soma Permadi’s rule in this district. The inscriptions at Kohir, Chintalaghat, Alladurgam and Patancheru belonging to Somesvara-II and Vikramaditya-VI register gifts to Jinalayas by their subordinates.
The next dynasty which held sway over this district was the Kakatiya dynasty which included well-known rulers like Prola-II, Ganapati, Rudramba and Prataparudra.
Kakatiya emperor Prataparudra built Medak fort on a hillock around 12th century, it was called the Methukudurgam (and Methukuseema), from the Telugu word Methuku – meaning cooked rich grain. This fort provided as a vantage point for the Kakatiyan rulers in ancient India. The main entrance proudly displays the double-headed bird “Gandabherundam” of the Kakatiyas. The Medak fort stands as an epitome of architectural excellence of the Kakatiya Empire.
During the reign of Muhammad-I, the son of Alla-ud-din Bahman Shah, the Recherla Chief Anapota Nayaka of Rachakonda defeated and killed Kapaya Nayaka and captured Warangal which included a major portion of Medak district. On account of the cordial relations between the Bahmanis and the Recherlas, Muhammad-I did not invade Warangal. Feroz Shah ascended the Bahmani throne and attempted to extend his sway to the east coast at the expense of the Recherlas. This provoked the Recherlas and war broke out between Feroz Shah and Anapota-II. Anapota-II attacked the Bahmani possessions in Telangana and acquired Medak. But the Recherlas was ultimately overthrown and their territory was annexed to the Bahmani Kingdom. Medak continued to be under the Bahmani’s till the break up of their kingdom into five States namely, Bijapur, Ahmadnagar, Berar, Bidar and Golconda. After the fall of Bahmani dynasty, the Barid Shahi dynasty came into power.
Amir Barid, who assumed sole charge of the affairs of the Bahmani kingdom, after the fall of Bahmani dynasty, had many vicissitudes and constant wars with the rulers of Bijapur and Berar. After his death in 1538A.D., he was succeeded by his son Ali Barid, who was the first to assume the title of `Shah’. Ali Barid, with the support of other Deccan Kings, attacked the King of Vijayanagar in the famous battle of Tallikota, in which, the Vijayanagar ruler was defeated. Ali Barid died in 1582. Prola-II with his military skill, made the feudal fief he inherited, into a sovereign state which emerged into a powerful empire, embracing the whole of the Telugu speaking territory. During the reign of Prataparudra, the army led by Malik Kafur under the command of Ala-ud-din Khilji, while on its way to Warangal, captured this district. These invasions, however, ended with the overthrow of Prataparudra and the annexation of his Kingdom to the Delhi Sultanate.
After the fall of the Kakatiya empire, Muhammadbin-Tuglaq, the Sultan of Delhi, divided the Deccan and South India into five provinces and appointed Governors to administer them. Shihab-i-Sultani, entitled Nuzrat Khan was thus appointed Governor of Telangana, which included Medak District. Rebellions cropped up everywhere following the imposition of tribute which gave rise to the Bahmani dynasty. Many such revolts jolted Tughlaq’s rule. These revolts led to the establishment of independent principalities by the Musunuri Chiefs of Warangal and Recharlas of Rachakonda (Nalgonda District).
An important event relevant to this district was the rebellion of Qir-Khan, a subordinate of Ala-ud-din Bahman Shah. The Sultan despatched a vast army to curtail this revolt. Qir-Khan who was then at Kohir of this district was confident of victory. However, his army was routed by the royal forces under Sikander Khan. Qir Khan was arrested and later executed and he was succeeded by three other kings after which, Qutub Shahi dynasty came into power. Sultan Kuli, a Turk of a noble family, who was the Governor of the Golconda province under the Bahmanis took advantage of the distracted state of the kingdom under Muhammad Shah of Barid Shahi Dyansty and declared his independence, establishing the Qutub Shahi dynasty which reigned from 1512 to 1687A.D. Thereafter this Kingdom was annexed to the Mughal Empire, by Aurangazeb.
During Aurangazeb’s reign, the Marathas became very active, which proved to be a threat to Aurangazeb. Therefore, he sent troops to establish his supremacy over Medak.
Later, the Marathas organized a rebellion to overthrow Nizam-ul-Mulk, the Viceroy of the Deccan. Nizam-ul-Mulk sent his bodyguard under the command of his elder son Ghaziud-Din Khan with Muhammad Ghiyas Khan and Mirza Beg Khan Bakshi as his guardians. This shook the Marathas, who fled and hid themselves in the dense forests of the tract. This Victory was celebrated by Nizam-ul-Mulk in a grand manner.
In 1715A.D., Nizam-ul-Mulk was replaced by Husain Ali Khan, as the Viceroy of the Deccan. Nizam-ul-Mulk, who was unceremoniously removed, however, nurtured the desire of reoccupying the Deccan. Therefore in 1720 A.D. , he proceeded against the Deccan and in a fierce battle that ensured near Balapur in Berar, Alam Ali Khan, the Deputy of Husain Ali Khan was killed. This victory established the supremacy of Nizam-ul-Mulk in the whole of the Deccan. Again in 1724 A.D. Nizam-ul-Mulk had to fight a battle at shakar Khere against Mubariz Khan. This battle established the independence of Nizam-ul-Mulk (Asaf jahi) who annexed Berar and fixed his residence at Hyderabad and established his dominions. Medak district along with the rest of the Telangana came under the control of Asaf Jahi dynasty. After Nizam-ul-Mulk, Nasir Jung, Mazaffar Jung and Salabat Jung ruled for short periods. Ali Jah rose in revolt against his father Nizam Ali Khan, the second Asaf Jah, with the help of Sadasiva Reddy the Medak Jagirdar. Nizam Ali Khan despatched Raymond, a french Commander to proceed against the rebels and subdue them. The Nizam’s army came and pitched their tents at the village of `Chickrin’ and Sadasiva Reddy also went to that place at the head of an army not to fight but to offer his submission. He was, however, suspected and captured while attending the durbar., In the meanwhile, Ali Jah died and Medak was granted to Raymond. Though there was a protest by the British against this grant, no attention was paid to this protest and Raymond took possession of Medak and other areas held by Sadasiva Reddy and he had to pay sixteen lakhs of rupees annually as rent for these areas. This arrangement continued until the death of Raymond in 1798.
Nizam Ali Khan died in 1803. He was succeeded by Sikander Jah, Nasir-ud-doula, Afsal-ud-doula, and Mir Mehbub Ali Khan (7th Asif Jah) during whose time India got independence. The Nizam’s dominions became a part of Indian union in 1948 as Part-B State and in 1956 during the re-organization of States, the Hyderabad State was trifurcated the nine pre-dominantly Telugu speaking districts of Mahbubnagar, Hyderabad, Medak, Nizamabad, Adilabad, Karimnagar, Warangal, Khammam and Nalgonda known as Telangana region were transferred to Andhra Pradesh. Major portions of predominantly Kannada speaking districts of Raichur, Gulbarga and Bidar were transferred to Karnataka State While Maratwada comprising the five districts of Aurangabad, Osmanabad, Bhir, Parbhani, Nanded and a portion of Bidar which is predominantly Marathi speaking was transferred to Maharashtra State. These changes were effected on 1st November 1956.
Medak District is bifurcated from Erstwhile Medak District, Headquarters at Sangareddy. According to G.O.M.S 239; Dt: 11-10-2016 by Government of Telangana. It is surrounded by Kamareddy, Siddipet and Sangareddy districts.