|Country||State||Headquarters||Constituencies||Municipalities||Revenue Divisions||Tehsils||District Collector||Population (2011)||Literacy Rate||Time zone|
|India||Telangana||Medak||2||4||3||20||Sri K. Dharma Reddy. IAS||7,67,428||56.12%||UTC+05:30 (IST)|
Medak district is a district located in the Indian state of Telangana. Medak is the district headquarters. The district shares boundaries with Sangareddy, Kamareddy, Siddipet and Medchal districts. Medak region was named by QutubShahis as Gulshanabad due to the lush greenery.
Location and Size:
Medak, one of the Western districts of Telangana lies approximately between 17°27’ to 18°19’ North Latitudes and 77°28’ to 79°10’ East Longitudes. The district is bounded on the North by Nizambad and Karimnagar, East by Warangal and Nalgonda, South by Rangareddy district and West by Karnataka State. The total area of the district is 2,765 Sq. Km and ranks 16th position contributing about 3.53 % area of the State. The shape of the district is rectangular from West to East.
Physiographically, the district has an average height between 500 and 600 meters above Mean Sea Level (MSL). The topography of the district can be characterised by plains as well as upland, plateau, significant areas of stony waste and boulder rocks characterise the district with open scrubs and dry channels, ponds are quite frequent all over the district. A few ranges like that of Medak hills cross the district. In addition, isolated peaks and rocky clusters lie scattered. The hilly areas are covered under reserved forests comprising of maddi, chinangi, satinwood, mahua, nim and abnus. The leaves of abnus are used for making beedis and are important forest products of the district. The district is composed of oldest rock formations, i.e., Archaean gneisses and those consisting principally of peninsular granite. The Western part has large deposits of Mesozoic – lower tertiary rocks. Besides, in the South-western part, Pliestocene – Laterites is found between Manjira and Kagna rivers. The soils developed in the Eastern half on Archaean gneisses are Ustalfs in the Northern part and Ustalfs-Tropepts in the Southern part. Usterts soil sub-order association is generally found in Western half with a large extension of OrthentsTropepts in the extreme Western part of the district. Keeping the physiographic characteristics of the district into consideration, there are five divisions as follows.
Medak–Narsapur Forested Region: (Area – 2,224.00 Sq. Km) Being relatively higher in altitude (600 meters) with large forest covers, this region is obviously distinctive from the adjoining regions. It covers the parts of Narsapur, Medak, Ramayampet and Gajwel areas. Pushpal and Haldi Rivers with their tributaries flow in this region from South-east and flow to North-west and join Manjira River which touches the region at its North-west corner. Geologically, the region has been developed on Archaean gneisses. Formed on disintegrated material of parent rocks, the soil in the North-western half belong to Ustalfs sub–order association while Tropepts are associated with Ustalfs in South-eastern part. There are large patches of reserved forests scattered over the region. These are open/dense mixed jungles of dry mixed deciduous type.
The soil of the district is mainly red earth comprising loamy sands, sandy loams and sandy clay loams. Black cotton soil consisting of clay loams, clay and silty clay is found in the district.
Flora and Fauna:
The entire district is covered by the Southern tropical dry deciduous forests. The short monsoon period has a significant effect on the floristic composition of the forests of this district. The common species found in the district are maddi (terminalia tomentosa), Chirangi (larger stroemia parvijlora), satinwood (chloroxylon swietenia), mahua (bassia latifolia), neem (melia azadirachta), abnus (diospyrosmel anoylon). The leaves of abnus are used for making beedies which is the most important among the minor forest produce. During the dry season most of the trees are deciduous for a considerable period. The shedding of leaves starts around January and the trees remain leafless till June. Some dry ever green species like Korivi (lxore parvijlora), alli (memecylon edule) and pala or sapota (mimusopshexandra) are also commonly seen along with other species. Teak (tectora grandis) is the most valuable and important product in the district.
Previously the forests of the district were active with wildlife. The pocharam wild life sanctuary extending from Medak to Nizamabad district also had a variety of wild animals and birds. But lack of adequate drinking water facilities, adverse environmental factors, the advent of modern weapons and other means of hunting are responsible for the destruction of the fauna of this district. Among carnivores, wolf, jackal and fox can be found on the outskirts of the district. Beautiful four-horned antelope, wild bear, blackbuck and sloth bear are also found in the jungles. Occasionally sambar and spotted deer appear in the interior jungles. Among avifauna (flying species), patridge, pigeon, the great Indian bustard, peafowl, green pigeon, green jungle fowl and varieties of ducks and cranes are common.
Manjira, a tributary of River Godavari is important drainage flowing in the district. The important Nizam Sagar dam is constructed on this river. The other important streams are Haldi and Kudalair flow in the Eastern half of the district.
Irrigation: Ghanpur Project is only a medium irrigation project with an ayacut of 8,650 Hectares in the district. The remaining depends on groundwater i.e., Borewells for irrigation.
Medak district is situated at a considerable distance from the sea-coast, the climate is tropical and is characterized by hot summer and dry except during the South-west monsoon season. As per the climate conditions of the district, the year may be divided into four seasons. The hot (summer) season is from March to May. From March onwards the temperature continues to rise and May is generally the hottest month in the year. The period from June to September constitutes the South-west monsoon (SW rainy) season and October to December is North-East monsoon (NE rainy) season. The cold (winter) season is from January to February.
Winds are generally light to moderate with some increase in force during May and South-west monsoon season. During the post-monsoon season, winds are very light and variable in the direction in the mornings and mostly North-eastern in the afternoons. During the latter half of the cold season and in March and April morning, winds continue to be light and variable in direction, while the afternoon winds are being mostly Eastern to South-western. Winds from Western direction begin to blow from May and in the South-west monsoon season; winds are mainly from Western to North-western direction.
The days are intensively very hot and on individual days the temperature may go up to about 46°C. The maximum temperature of 45.3°C during the decade is recorded during the year 2001 in the hottest month of May. With the advance of South-west monsoon by about the middle of June there is an appreciable drop in temperature. By October the day temperature begins to increase slightly, but the night temperature steadily decreases. After November, both day and night temperature decreases rapidly. The minimum temperature of 11.5°C is recorded in the early decade i.e., during the year 2000 and in the month of December.
The transportation road network is vital to the economic development, trade and social integration of the country. It facilitates smooth conveyance of both people and goods. Size of the road network, its quality and access have a bearing on various parameters of the economy like travel time, transport costs, cost of input, cost of finished products, etc. Besides, the road network promotes wide market of various products/services and thereby extend markets as a consequence enable exploitation of the economies of scale.